📰 neutrino factories in deep space

An international research team is revealing for the first time the origin of neutrinos, elementary particles that reach our planet from the depths of the universe.

Artist’s impression of the acceleration of cosmic rays, neutrinos, and photons, as seen in Pivatron Blazerat.
© Benjamin Amand

High-energy and hard to detect, neutrinos travel billions of light-years before they reach us planet (A planet is a celestial body that revolves around the sun or another star in…). If we know that these elementary particles come from deep within us Universe (The universe is the sum of all that exists and the laws that govern it.)Their exact origin is still unknown. international team of Research (Scientific research identifies in the first place all actions taken with a view to …) driven byUniversity (The university is an institution of higher education whose goal is…) Würtzburg (JMU) in Germany andUniversity of Geneva (University of Geneva (UNIGE) is the public university of the Canton of Geneva in…) (UNIGE), lift the veil on one piece of the puzzle: neutrinos will be generated in particular in blazars, galactic nuclei fueled by supermassive black holes. These findings will be discovered in Astrophysical Journal Letters.

L ‘Earth’s atmosphere (Earth’s atmosphere is the gaseous envelope surrounding the solid Earth. Dry air consists of…) It is constantly bombarded with cosmic rays. These electrically charged particles are formed, andenergy (In the general sense, energy defines everything that allows you to do work, generate energy, etc.) It can reach 1020 MeV. this million (One million (1,000,000) is the natural number after nine hundred and ninety-nine…) times more than the energy reached inParticle accelerator (Particle accelerators are tools that use fields…) stronger than Globalism (world can refer to 🙂amazing collider (The collider is a type of particle accelerator that includes beams…) Hadron from CERN, Geneva. These highly energetic particles come from deep space. Hence, they traveled billions of light years before they reached our planet. Where exactly did they come from and what drives them into the universe like this Energy (The word force can refer to a mechanical force on things, and also, figuratively, a…)? This question was for more than century (A century is now a period of a hundred years. The word comes from the Latin word saeculum, i, which…) One of the biggest challengesAstrophysics (Astrophysics (from the Greek astro = star and physiqui = physics) is a branch…).

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The birthplaces of cosmic rays are known to produce neutrinos, which are neutral particles that are difficult to detect. they Mass (The term mass is used to designate two quantities connected into one…) It is actually almost nothing and they hardly interact with issue (Material is the substance that makes any object have a tangible reality. …). They “run” in the universe and can pass through galaxies, planets and human body (The human body is the physical structure of a human being). Almost without leaving Effect (TRACE is a NASA space telescope designed to study the relationship between…). Astrophysical neutrinos are produced exclusively during processes involvingacceleration (Acceleration usually refers to an increase in speed; in physics,…) Cosmic rays, says Sarah Busson, professor of astrophysics at Julius-Maximilians-Universität (JMU) in Würzburg, Germany, and that’s exactly what makes neutrinos unique messengers, paving the way for the localization of cosmic ray sources.

Near the end of a controversial debate?

Despite its large size amount (Quantity is a general term for measurement (computation, quantity); scalar, …) From data (In information technology (IT), data is an initial description, often…) Collecting astrophysicists on the topic, the link between high-energy neutrinos and the astrophysical sources that produce them remains largely a mystery. That was in 2017, in an article published in the magazine Science (Science (Latin science, “knowledge”) is, according to the dictionary…), that Sarah Boson and her collaborators first incorporated the idea that blazar (TXS 0506 + 056) could be a putative source of neutrinos. Blazars are active galactic nuclei powered by supermassive black holes that emit much more radiation (Radiation, synonymous with radiation in physics, refers to the process of emission or…) That all they have galaxy (Galaxies is a French quarterly magazine devoted to science fiction. With…). This post sparked a discussion scientific (A scientist is a person who devote himself to the study of science or science and who …) About a real connection between plasmons and high-energy neutrinos.

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Following this encouraging first step, Sarah Bosson’s ambitious collection launched in June 2021 project (The project is an irreversible commitment to an uncertain outcome, and cannot be reproduced for…) The study was supported by the European Research Council. It consists of analyzing various signals (or “messengers”, such as neutrinos for example) coming from the universe. The main goal is to make light (Light is the set of electromagnetic waves visible to the eye…) about the origin of neutrinos, which may prove with certainty that blazars are the primary source of extragalactic high-energy neutrinos.

The project is now experiencing its first success: in Astrophysical Journal Letters, Sarah Busson, with her group of former postdoctoral student Ranier de Menezes (JMU) and Andrea Tramassery, Researcher (Researcher (researcher) refers to a person whose job it is to conduct research…) In sectionastronomy (Astronomy is the science of observing the stars, seeking to explain…) From UNIGE, reports indicate that blazars can associate astrophysical neutrinos with a Degree (The word degree has many meanings, it is especially used in fields…) Unprecedented certainty.

Uncover the role of blazars

Andrea Tramaseri is one of the modeling experts Digital (Digital information is information…) Acceleration processes and radiation mechanisms operating in relativistic jets – accelerated flows of matter approach light’s speed (The speed of light in a vacuum, denoted by c (for…) Especially in blazars planes.

“procesaccumulation (Accumulation in astrophysics, geology and meteorology indicates an increase by …) and rotate Black hole (In astrophysics, a black hole is a massive body whose gravitational field is very intense…) They lead to the formation of relativistic jets, where particles accelerate and emit radiation with energies up to a trillion times greater than the energies of visible light! A UNIGE researcher explains that discovering the relationship between these objects and cosmic rays could be a “Rosetta Stone” in high-energy astrophysics!

To arrive at these results, the research team superimposed the neutrino data obtained by the Ice Cube Neutrino Observatory by South Pole Antarctica (pronounced [ɑ̃.taʁk.tik] Listen) is the continent most …) – The detector (A detector is a technical device (tool, substance, substance) that changes …) The most sensitive neutrino array currently in service – and BZCAT, one of the most accurate catalogs of blazars. “Using these data, we had to demonstrate that plasmons whose orientation positions coincide with those of neutrinos were not present by Coincidence (In ordinary language, the word opportunity is used to express a lack of competence, otherwise…). “

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To do this, a UNIGE researcher developed a file software (In computing, a program is a set of information related to processing…) able to estimate how Point (graphics) Distributions of these things in sky (The sky is the Earth’s atmosphere as seen from the planet Earth.) They look alike. “After rolling the dice several times, we have found that the random association can only exceed real data once in a million trials! This is strong evidence that our associations are correct.”

Despite this success, the research team believes that this is first a sample (Generally, a sample is a small amount of material, information, or…) Of things is just the “tip of the iceberg”. However, this work allowed him to collect “new observational evidence”, that is, the most important element for building more realistic models of astrophysical accelerators.

“What we need to do now is understand the main difference between things that emit neutrinos and things that do not emit neutrinos. This will help us understand to what extentenvironment (Environment is everything that surrounds us. It is all natural elements and…) The accelerator is “Dialogue”. Then we will be able to rule out certain models, improve the predictive ability of others, and finally, add new pieces to the eternal puzzle of cosmic ray acceleration! “.

the post:
This research was published in Strophysical Journal Letters – ArXiv: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/2041-8213/ac7d5b

Andrea Tramacere – Scientific Assistant – Department of Astronomy – Faculty of Science – [email protected]

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