Ce duo de galaxies en interaction est collectivement appelé Arp 143. La paire contient la galaxie spirale déformée à formation d'étoiles NGC 2445, à droite, ainsi que son compagnon moins flashy, NGC 2444, à gauche. © Nasa, ESA, STScI, Julianne Dalcanton (Center for Computational Astrophysics / Flatiron Inst. and University of Washington); Image Processing : Joseph DePasquale (STScI)

Strange triangle-shaped galaxy spotted by Hubble

The NASA and theESA He recently uploaded some amazing photos taken by telescope Hubble shows some examples of galaxies collision that is part ofAtlas of alien galaxies, also known as Atlas Arab. It is an astronomical catalog showing certain galaxies that they initially owed to the deceased astronomer American Halton Arp (1927-2013). He first published it in 1966, when he died a record of 338 galaxies.

Halton Arp, just like Fred Hoyle, Margaret and Jeffrey Burbidgewill remain opposed to the theory the great explosion In the late 1960s (although the discovery of cosmic radiation) until today. He wondered, like Hoyle, about the explanation of the spectral shift according to Hubble-Lemeter’s law In terms of space expansion. This discrepancy must have another explanation, for example in the framework of the theory light Fatigue, which involves a constant loss of energy from Photons issued by stars With the distance they go without this loss corresponding to a turn around big wavelengthsso from blue to red, due to expansion The continuous and accumulated wavelengths of photons due to the expansion of space during their journey.

A pair of galaxies interacting together is called Arp 143. The pair contains the distorted star-forming spiral galaxy NGC 2445, on the right, and its elliptical companion NGC 2444, on the left. ©NASA, ESA, STScI, and J. Dalcanton (Center for Computational Astrophysics/Flatiron Institute, U.S.C.)

Galaxies that do not invalidate the Big Bang theory

However, the tired-light theory was untenable, as the great Russian cosmologist Yakov Zeldovich quickly explained for the first time. according to the laws physical – physicalany energy loss according to the light fatigue theory involves a random loss of Motion For the photons by interacting with their environment, for example intergalactic dust, so that the images of stars and galaxies deteriorate more and more with distance, which has not been observed at all.

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Moreover, as explained Cosmologist Ned Wrightthe relative expansion of space implies that the time of evolution of the light curve of the explosions supernovae It should appear dilated according to a very precise law, an expansion that no tired optical theory could predict. However, not only the phenomenon and the expected law have been observed, but the difference between the tired light theory and the observations is 11 sigma, say the researchers in their terminology. It’s a massive disagreement.

Arp was troubled by the fact that some of the objects in their catalog showed intergalactic galaxies or at least appeared more likely due to their proximity to the celestial vault. But these galaxies had different spectral shifts, contradicting their apparently close associations involving distances similar to the Milky Way. Quite logically, Harp concluded that this refutes the standard theory of the spectral shift. The well-known example is Stephen Quintet،, a visible group of 5 galaxies located in constellation pegasus It was first observed by the French astronomer Edouard Stéphane in 1878. In fact, only 4 galaxies are in a true interaction state, and as in all other cases that disturbed Harp, it was possible to show that the differences in transformation were in fact due to The different spatial distances and correlations on the Heavenly Vault were simple stars like constellations.

Hubble and Arp Catalog

Latest image uploaded by NASA and ESA presentations NGC 2444, one lenticular galaxy A ring located in the constellation Lynx about 180-200 millionlight years Of the Milky Way galaxy discovered by French astronomer Edouard Stéphane in 1877, as well as NGC 2445, also a ring but irregular galaxy that undoubtedly interacts with NGC 2444.

NGC 2445 was also discovered in 1877 by Eduard Stefan and together the two galaxies are called Arp 143 today, they are relatively small and are very bright. The astrophysicists They believe that ring galaxies form when a galaxy passes through the center of a larger galaxy. The Gas Stars of self-gravity galaxies can be considered essentially non-collision, but gravitational perturbations from such an event can cause shock waves in the interstellar medium containing clouds causative molecules Collapse Gravity and thus a diffuse star formation wave.

This is thought to have happened with Arp 143 between 50 and 100 million years ago, hence the explosion of new star formation visible in NGC 2445. The triangular shape of this galaxy is thought to be due to gravitational forces distortion of its circular structure. NGC 2444 contains old stars and no new stellar births because it lost its gas long ago, long before this galactic encounter.

A little more than a week before Arp 143, NASA published another image obtained using Hubble Shown is Arp 282, an interacting galaxy pair consisting of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 169 (bottom) and IC 1559 (top). NGC 169 is a spiral galaxy located in Andromeda constellation About 205 million light-years from the Milky Way. It was discovered by Irish astronomer RJ Mitchell in 1857.

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These two galaxies are interacting Across Tidal forces distort it and release gas and stars. Both are home Active Galactic Nuclei Which seems to be a constant for some time that they draw their energy fromaccumulation of material Central supermassive black holes.

Several items from the Halton Arp catalog are featured in this video. © Nas, Issa, Get Started with Astronomy

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