Bac de philo 2023: essential citations to pass the exam

Bac de philo 2023: essential citations to pass the exam

This Wednesday, seniors will consider the topic of baccalaureate philosophy. Here are the must-know quotes to fuel your message.

On the morning of June 14, future graduates will focus on their last written test, the Philosophy test. A few hours before the topics are revealed, you can now or never edit your reviews. For this, below are the quotes related to the 17 subjects studied this year. On each topic, three sentences are suggested to the author; As a catchphrase, as an example, as an argument, it can be very useful for you to fuel your thesis.

– Art:

Martin Heidegger:The essence of art is truth working itself outPaths that lead nowhere (1935-1936)

Arthur Schopenhauer:Beauty is the real key to artThe world as will and as representation (1818)

Friedrich Nietzsche:Art exists so that the truth does not destroy usThus spoke Zarathustra (1883-1885)


Gandhi:A person must allow himself to be guided in all his actions by moral considerations.Letters to the Ashram1930

Immanuel Kant: “Duty here does not mean natural disposition, but moral disposition, i.e. adoption by the will of law as it ought to apply to all reasonable beings.Foundations of the metaphysics of morals (1785)

John Paul Sartre:Man is doomed to be free. Because once he is put out into the world, he is responsible for everything he doesBeing and nothingness (1943)

– Justice:

John Rawls:Justice is the cardinal virtue of social institutions because truth is systems of thoughtjustice theory (1971).

Plato:Justice is giving all his dueRepublic (about 380 BC)

Aristotle:Justice is only the interest of the strongestEthics in Nicomaque (about 350 BC)

– nature

Jean-Jacques Rousseau:Nature makes men the same, and life makes them differentTalk about the origin and foundations of inequality between men (1755)

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Martin Heidegger:Nature is a world constantly coming into itselfArticles and conferences (1954)

Jacques Derrida:Nature is a sign that is already, always, also, a signThe truth is in the drawing (1978)

– Science:

Thomas Kuhn:Science advances only in funeral stepsThe structure of scientific revolutions (1962)

René Descartes:Science is the bread of the soul that fattens and nourishes it without fattening or nourishing the bodyPrinciples of philosophy (1644)

Albert Einstein: “Science without religion is lame, religion without science is blindScience, philosophy and religion (1941)

– the job:

Simon Weil:Work is the great thing, for it is through work that we liberate ourselves, and it is through work that we liberate ourselvesrooting (1949)

Albert Camus:Work keeps us away from three great evils: boredom, vice, and needRebel man (1951)

Hannah Arendt:Labor is the human activity that closely corresponds to the animal’s biological condition in life.condition of modern man (1958)

– happiness:

Seneca:Happiness does not depend on what happens to us, but on our attitude towards what happens to usLetters to Lucilius (1st century AD)

Arthur Schopenhauer:Happiness is the satisfaction that arises from the cessation of all suffering The world as will and as representation (1818)

Martha Nussbaum:Human happiness is the activity of the soul in accordance with virtueThe fragility of goodness (1986)

– State:

Michel Foucault:Power, within a society, can only be conceived of as the multiplicity of power relations inherent in that society.Watch and punish (1975)

Friedrich Nietzsche:The state is the coldest cold beastThus spoke Zarathustra (1883-1885)

Karl Marx:The state is only the committee that manages the common affairs of the bourgeoisieManifesto of the Communist Party (1848)

– the language:

Ludwig Wittgenstein:The limits of my language mean the limits of my private worldTractatus Logico-Philicus (1921)

Jacques Derrida:Language is this dynamic space where texts collide and break apart.Grammer Science (1967)

Michel Foucault:Language is what makes thinking work and makes it necessarySpeech order (1970)

– the reason:

Friedrich Nietzsche:Reason is only the instrument of our will, and it is our will that determines our reality.Beyond good and evil (1886)

Blaise Pascal:The heart has its reasons that the mind does not knowideas (1670)

Immanuel Kant: “Reason should be the ruler and judge of everything.Criticism of pure reason (1781)

– Technology:

Martin Heidegger:Technology is not the mediator between man and nature, it is the way in which man reveals himself as a being capable of creativity.Articles and conferencesA Question of Technology (1953)

Hannah Arendt:Modern technology tends to turn men into passive consumers and strip them of their ability to work and their freedom.condition of the modern man (1958)

Jack Ellul:Technology is an independent, impersonal force that shapes society and defines individualsTechnology or the issue of the century (1954)

– the truth:

René Descartes:Doubt is the corridor of truthPrinciples of philosophy (1644)

Soren Kierkegaard:The truth is always on the side of the minority, and it is not consensus that determines what is right complete works (1843)

Michel Foucault:Truth is the system of power relations that governs the production, distribution, and functioning of discoursesArcheology of knowledge (1969)

– Awareness:

Maurice Merleau-Ponty:Consciousness is the construction of existence by which existence returns to itselfperception phenomena(1945).

Thomas Nagel:What it means to be something is to have awareness of itwhat’s the problem? (1974)

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John Paul Sartre:Consciousness is not the doer who knows, but the doer that he isBeing and nothingness (1943)

– the unconscious:

Sigmund Freud:The subconscious is the largest part of our mind that remains unknown to us, and that directs us without us being aware of it.Interpretation of dreams (1899)

Jacques Lacan:The unconscious is built like a language, and it is through this language that our desires and symptoms express themselves.writings (1966)

Carl Gustav Jung:The collective unconscious is the deepest part of the soul, which goes beyond the individual and is inherited from our ancestorsThe man finds his soul (1933)

– freedom:

Immanuel Kant: “A person is free when he obeys the laws that he imposed on himselfFoundations of the metaphysics of morals (1785)

John Stuart Mill:The freedom of all ends where the freedom of others begins.Freedom (1859)

Jean-Jacques Rousseau:Man was born free, and everywhere he is in ironof the social contract (1762)

– Debt:

Voltaire:If God didn’t exist, we had to invent himEssay on the morals and spirit of nations (1756)

Karl Marx:Religion is the opium of the peopleIntroduction to Criticism of Hegel’s Philosophy of Law (1844)

Emile Durkheim:Religion is the unified system of beliefs and practices regarding sacred objects.Elementary Forms of Religious Life (1912).

– the time:

Epicurus:We never live in time, but we always live in eternityLetter to Herodotus (3rd century BC)

Henri Bergson:Time is how long he has livedEssay on instant data of consciousness (1889)

Blaise Pascal:The present is greater than the future, and the future changes the pastideas (1669)

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